Description of Malunggay

  • Name-Moringa oleifera

  • Family-Moringaceae


  • Sanskrit-: Shigru (white var.),
                      Madhu Shigru,
                      Sigra,
                      Shobhaanjana,
                      Haritashaaka.
                      Raktaka,
                      Murangi,
                      Mochaka,
                      Akshiva,
                      Tikshnagandhaa

  • Bengali-Sojina, Sajna, Sajne

  • English -Horse Radish Tree, Drum Stick Tree

  • Gujrati -Sargavo, Sekato, Saragavo Parna

  • Hindi -Shajoma, Mungna

  • Kannada -Neegge, Nugge ele

  • Malayalam -Murinna, Tishnagandha, Muringa, Muringa Elai

  • Marathi -Sevaga, Segata, Segata pana, Shewgachi pane

  • Oriya -Sajana, Munga, Munika

  • Punjabi -Sohanjana

  • Tamil -Murungai, Murungai Ilai

  • Telugu -Munaga Aku

  • Urdu -Sehjan

  • Konkani -Muska Saang

  • Nepali-Sajiwan or Swejan

  • Guyana -Sijan

  • Hausa -Zogale

  • Sinhalese -Murunga

  • Thai-Ma rum


  • Thirteen Moringa species are known:

    M. oleiferaM. hildebrandtiiM. rivae
    M. arboreaM. longitubaM. ruspoliana
    M. borzianaM. ovalifoliaM. stenopetala
    M. concanensisM. peregrina
    M. drouhardiiM. pygmaea

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

   Malunggay is found wild in the sub-Himalayan tract, and commonly cultivated throughout the country.It also grows wild in the Middle East and Africa. It is grown mainly in semi-arid, tropical, and subtropical areas and is widely cultivated in Africa,Central and South America, Sri Lanka, India, Mexico, Malaysia,Indonesia and the Philippines.

HISTORICAL OR TRADITIONAL USE

   Considered one of the world’s most useful trees,Malunggay has other beneficial properties as well. In many countries, the micronutrient liquid of the Malunggay tree is used as a natural anthelmintic (kills parasites) and as adjuvant (to aid or enhance another drug), which is used as a metabolic conditioner to aid against endemic diseases in developing countries.The bark, sap,roots, leaves, seeds, oil, and flowers are used in traditional medicine in several countries. Jamaica uses the sap as a blue dye. In West Bengal and Bangladesh, the flowers are cooked and relished as a delicacy, especially during early spring, where it is called shojne ful, and usually cooked with green peas and potato.

Plant Facts:

   The tree is slender-like, with drooping branches that grows up to approximately 10 m in height. In cultivation, it is often cut back annually to 1 meter or less and allowed to grow again so that pods and leaves remain within arm's reach.

Parts Used:

   All parts of the tree are used.The Moringa peregrina kernel contains 1.8% moisture,54.3% oil,22.1% protein,3.6% fiber,15.3% carbohydrate and 2.5% ash. The plant contains antibacterial principles,spirochin and pterygospermin. The leaves contain nitrile glycosides, niazirin and niazirinin and mustard oil glycosides.The roots also possess the pterygospermin, Spirochin and benzylisothiocyanate.In July 1995 Rubeena saleem published that ethanolic extraction of M.oleifera leaves contain 23 compounds such as Niaziminin A & B,Niazicinin A,Niazimicin A & B, Niazicin A & B,Niazinin A & B,Niazimin A & B,Naringenin etc.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

   The Moringa peregrina kernel contains 1.8% moisture, 54.3% oil,22.1% protein, 3.6% fiber, 15.3% carbohydrate and 2.5% ash. The plant contains antibacterial principles, spirochin and pterygospermin. The leaves contain nitrile glycosides, niazirin and niazirinin and mustard oil glycosides. The roots also possess the pterygospermin, Spirochin and benzylisothiocyanate. In July 1995 Rubeena saleem published that ethanolic extraction of M. oleifera leaves contain 23 compounds such as Niaziminin A & B, Niazicinin A, Niazimicin A & B, Niazicin A & B, Niazinin A & B, Niazimin A & B, Naringenin etc.

CHEMICAL STRUCTURES